The Safety and Effectiveness of Apixaban in Patients with End-Stage Kidney Disease on Dialysis: A Retrospective Observational Study

Wasim El Nekidy, Emna Abidi, Said Nabil, Saba Kendakji, Moatasem Ali, Salahdein Aburuz, Bassam Atallah, Fadi Hijazi, Jihad Mallat, Amal Akour

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Apixaban has been increasingly utilized for various FDA-approved indications, including stroke prevention and venous thromboembolism (VTE) treatment in patients with end stage kidney disease (ESKD) on hemodialysis. However, the safety and efficacy of its use in this population is not well established. Hence, the purpose of this study is to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of apixaban by examining outcomes in this population. Methods: This was a retrospective observational study that involved adults with ESKD who were on hemodialysis and prescribed apixaban from our hospital’s outpatient pharmacy between 1 May 2015, and 31 March 2022. Demographics, apixaban indications, dose appropriateness, concomitant antiplatelet use, and comorbidities data were collected. Bleeding and thromboembolic events were also collected. Results: Sixty-six patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria, 50% of them males. Median age was 71 (63.5–82) years, and the median BMI 28.2 (59.5–86.25) kg/m2. The median follow-up time was 5 (1.9–12.3) months. Concomitant antiplatelet use (39.4%) and high medication adherence (84.8%) were observed. During follow-up, major bleeding events occurred in 15.2% of cases, with minor bleeding being more common (36.4%), and VTE and stroke events occurred in 4.5% of cases; appropriate dosing was prevalent (62.1%), and there was an overall all-cause mortality rate of 34.8%. Most patients received a 2.5 mg BID apixaban dose (56.1%), including both NVAF and VTE groups. Notably, the multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that weight, and daily dose were insignificant predictors of bleeding events (p = 0.104, 0.591), however, the BMI was the main independent risk factor for bleeding in this population [OR = 0.9, 95% CI: 0.8–0.99; p = 0.023]. Conclusions: Our analysis of apixaban-treated ESKD patients highlights that the risk of bleeding is significant, and BMI was the main independent risk factor. A larger prospective study is needed to confirm our findings.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1351
JournalJournal of Clinical Medicine
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2024


  • dialysis
  • direct acting oral anticoagulant
  • end stage renal diseases

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine


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