The Texture of Camel Milk Cheese: Effects of Milk Composition, Coagulants, and Processing Conditions

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)


Numerous people in African, Middle Asian, Middle Eastern, and Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries highly value camel milk (CM) as it plays a vital role in their diet. The protein composition of CM as well as the structure of its casein micelles differs significantly from bovine milk (BM). Cheeses made from CM have a weak curd and soft texture compared to those made from BM. This review article presents and discusses the effect of milk protein composition, processing conditions (pasteurization and high-pressure treatment), and coagulants (camel chymosin, organic acids, plant proteases) on the quality of CM cheeses. CM cheese's weak texture is due to compositional characteristics of the milk, including low κ-casein-to-β-casein ratio (≈0.05 in CM vs. ≈0.33 in BM), large micelle size, different whey protein components, and higher proteolytic activity than BM. CM cheese texture can be improved by preheating the milk at low temperatures or by high pressure. Supplementing CM with calcium has shown inconsistent results on cheese texture, which may be due to interactions with other processing conditions. Despite their structure, CM cheeses are generally well liked in sensory studies.

Original languageEnglish
Article number868320
JournalFrontiers in Nutrition
Publication statusPublished - Apr 19 2022


  • bovine milk cheese
  • camel milk cheese
  • coagulants
  • high pressure processing
  • pasteurization

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Nutrition and Dietetics


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