Therapeutic Potential and Pharmaceutical Development of a Multitargeted Flavonoid Phloretin

Kartik T. Nakhate, Hemant Badwaik, Rajesh Choudhary, Kalyani Sakure, Yogeeta O. Agrawal, Charu Sharma, Shreesh Ojha, Sameer N. Goyal

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

15 Citations (Scopus)


Phloretin is a flavonoid of the dihydrogen chalcone class, present abundantly in apples and strawberries. The beneficial effects of phloretin are mainly associated with its potent antioxidant properties. Phloretin modulates several signaling pathways and molecular mechanisms to exhibit therapeutic benefits against various diseases including cancers, diabetes, liver injury, kidney injury, encephalomyelitis, ulcerative colitis, asthma, arthritis, and cognitive impairment. It ameliorates the complications associated with diabetes such as cardiomyopathy, hypertension, depression, memory impairment, delayed wound healing, and peripheral neuropathy. It is effective against various microbial infections including Salmonella typhimurium, Listeria monocytogenes, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Considering the therapeutic benefits, it generated interest for the pharmaceutical development. However, poor oral bioavailability is the major drawback. Therefore, efforts have been undertaken to enhance its bioavailability by modifying physicochemical properties and molecular structure, and developing nanoformulations. In the present review, we discussed the pharmacological actions, underlying mechanisms and molecular targets of phloretin. Moreover, the review provides insights into physicochemical and pharmacokinetic characteristics, and approaches to promote the pharmaceutical development of phloretin for its therapeutic applications in the future. Although convincing experimental data are reported, human studies are not available. In order to ascertain its safety, further preclinical studies are needed to encourage its pharmaceutical and clinical development.

Original languageEnglish
Article number3638
Issue number17
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2022


  • pharmaceutical development
  • phloretin
  • physicochemical properties
  • therapeutic potential
  • toxicity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Nutrition and Dietetics


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