Therapeutic potential of thymoquinone and its nanoformulations in pulmonary injury: A comprehensive review

Naif A. Al-Gabri, Sultan A.M. Saghir, Sallah A. Al-Hashedi, Ali H. El-Far, Asmaa F. Khafaga, Ayman A. Swelum, Abdullah S. Al-Wajeeh, Shaker A. Mousa, Mohamed E.Abd El-Hack, Mohammed A.E. Naiel, Khaled A. El-Tarabily

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

12 Citations (Scopus)


As a crucial organ, the lung is exposed to various harmful agents that may induce inflammation and oxidative stress, which may cause chronic or acute lung injury. Nigella sativa, also known as black seed, has been widely used to treat various diseases and is one of the most extensively researched medicinal plants. Thymoquinone (TQ) is the main component of black seed volatile oil and has been proven to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antineoplastic properties. The potential therapeutic properties of TQ against various pulmonary disorders have been studied in both in vitro and in vivo studies. Furthermore, the application of nanotechnology may increase drug solubility, cellular absorption, drug release (sustained or control), and drug delivery to lung tissue target sites. As a result, fabricating TQ as nanoparticles (NPs) is a potential therapeutic approach against a variety of lung diseases. In this current review, we summarize recent findings on the efficacy of TQ and its nanotypes in lung disorders caused by immunocompromised conditions such as cancer, diabetes, gastric ulcers, and other neurodegenerative diseases. It is concluded that TQ nanoparticles with antiinflammatory, antioxidant, antiasthma, and antitumor activity may be safely applied to treat lung disorders. However, more research is required before TQ nanoparticles can be used as pharmaceutical preparations in human studies.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)5117-5131
Number of pages15
JournalInternational Journal of Nanomedicine
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • Anticancer activity
  • Antimicrobial activity
  • Bioavailability
  • Drug delivery
  • Lung disease
  • Molecular potential
  • Nanoparticle
  • Thymoquinone

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biophysics
  • Bioengineering
  • Biomaterials
  • Pharmaceutical Science
  • Drug Discovery
  • Organic Chemistry


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