Thermal characterization of epoxy bilayer hybrid composites reinforced with kenaf and oil palm fibers

Farah Hanan, Tabrej Khan, Mohammad Jawaid, Mohamed Thariq Hameed Sultan, Tamer Sebaey, Balbir Singh, Siti Noorbaini Sarmin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


Natural fiber-based materials are widely accepted in the composite sector as a substitute for synthetic fiber, particularly in structural and semi-structural implementations in the automotive and aerospace industries, reflecting a recent trend and increased awareness of the importance of sustainable product design. Hand lay-up was used to create natural fiber bilayer hybrid composites with epoxy matrix reinforcing oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) and kenaf fiber matting. The overall effect of this hybridization of the natural fiber and the thermal characterizations were studied experimentally. Both the hybrid combinations kenaf fiber and oil palm EFB were made by maintaining the fiber loading at 50% (weight) and weight ratios at 1:1, 1:4 and 4:1. The Tan delta, loss modulus (E″), storage modulus (E′), and Cole-Cole plot were found to be useful in investigating dynamic mechanical properties. Dynamic mechanical analysis results like coefficient of performance and Cole-Cole plot clearly show that hybrid pure kenaf composite has the significant complex modulus because interfacial bond between fiber and matrix is strong. As a result, it has been determined that kenaf fibers have the best mixing ratio for improving the dynamic mechanical properties of these hybrid type composites and can be used for aerospace, automotive, and civil engineering applications requiring high dimensional stability and excellent mechanical properties. The thermal gravimetric analysis data demonstrated that as compared to pure, the kenaf fibers and hybrid oil palm empty fruit bunch composites have the best thermal stability, with the highest beginning and ultimate breakdown temperatures of 200 and 450°C, respectively.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)444-452
Number of pages9
JournalPolymer Composites
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2023
Externally publishedYes


  • dynamic properties
  • empty fruit bunch
  • ep Hybrid composites
  • Kenaf fiber
  • oil palm fiber
  • stiffness
  • thermal stability

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ceramics and Composites
  • General Chemistry
  • Polymers and Plastics
  • Materials Chemistry


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