Thermodynamic analysis of bio-oil model compounds to light hydrocarbon

Muhammad Zakwan Najohan, Zaki Yamani Zakaria, Mazura Jusoh, Anas Abdulqader Alshaikh, Muhammad Tahir, Didi Dwi Anggoro

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


The present work uses the total Gibbs free energy minimization approach to analyze the thermodynamic equilibrium analysis of bio-oil model compounds to light hydrocarbons. A mixture of model compounds was subjected to co-cracking with methanol and ethanol, and at a range of temperatures (300–1200 °C) and pressures (1–50 bars), the equilibrium compositions were calculated as a function of the hydroxypropanone-acetic acid-ethyl acetate/methanol ratio (HAEM) and the hydroxypropanone-acetic acid-ethyl acetate/ethanol ratio (HAEE). Possible reactions were analyzed, revealing that methane is the predominant product, followed by hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and propionic acid. The production of light hydrocarbons, including ethylene, ethane, propylene, and propane, was minimal. Notably, the co-reactant ethanol (HAEE 1:12) in the co-cracking of bio-oil model compounds demonstrated a significant effect on the production of methane, ethylene, and propylene at 1 bar pressure and 300 °C (for methane production) and 1200 °C (for ethylene and propylene production).

Original languageEnglish
Article number100640
JournalCleaner Engineering and Technology
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2023


  • Bio-oil
  • Cracking
  • Light hydrocarbons
  • Model compound mixture
  • Thermodynamic modeling

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Engineering (miscellaneous)


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