Three-dimensional electrochemical oxidation of recalcitrant dye using green iron microparticles

Manisha S. Kothari, Ashraf Aly Hassan, Kosha A. Shah

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


This study evaluated the effect of the addition of green iron microparticles (Fe-MPs) as a three-dimensional electrode on efficiency of the electrochemical oxidation process. Polyphenols present in green tea extract act as a reducing and capping agent during green synthesis of the Fe-MPs. Scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis indicates that the average size of particles is 100 µm, with about ~47 wt % of Fe in oxide form. The addition of Fe-MPs as a third electrode in the conventional electro-oxidation (EO) process converts it into a three-dimensional (3D) catalytic EO process to enhance the decolorization efficiency. Green synthesized Fe-MPs function as several microelectrodes in the process. Adsorption study indicated that only 12% of decolorization is due to adsorption on the Fe-MPs surface. Moreover, improvement in generation of hydroxyl radicals was validated by applying dimethyl sulfoxide as scavenger, and it was observed that generation of hydroxyl radicals decreased with the addition of DMSO. Results showed that decolorization efficiency increased in the 3D EO process with Fe-MPs by about 24% compared to the conventional 2D process without the Fe-MPs dosing, and initial pH as well as the Fe-MPs dose has a significant effect on decolorization efficiency during the 3D process. It is observed that reaction works better at highly acidic pH (2-4), and decolorization efficiency improved with higher doses of Fe-MPs.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1925
JournalWater (Switzerland)
Issue number14
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2 2021


  • Decolorization
  • Electrochemical oxidation
  • Green synthesis
  • Iron microparticles

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Water Science and Technology
  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Aquatic Science
  • Biochemistry


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