Titanium Carbide MXenes Cocatalyst with Graphitic Carbon Nitride for Photocatalytic H2 Production, CO2 Reduction, and Reforming Applications: A Review on Fundamentals and Recent Advances

Abdelmoumin Yahia Zerga, Muhammad Tahir, Hajar Alias, Naveen Kumar

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Two-dimensional (2D) titanium carbide (Ti3C2) MXenes have gained increasing attention in photocatalytic applications due to their prominent electrical conductivity, optical properties, and abundant surface functional groups. The unique layered microstructure characteristics of Ti3C2 provide a large surface area, interlayer spacing, and hydrophilic surface functional groups, contributing to their high photocatalytic efficiency. Graphitic carbon nitride is very promising among the semiconductors due to its layered structure and higher reduction potential. The present study discusses the recent advances in various Ti3C2 structures coupled with g-C3N4 for hydrogen evolution reactions (HER), photocatalytic CO2 reduction reactions (CO2 RR), and CO2 reforming of methane (CO2 RM). Initially, we provide an overview of the fundamental properties of Ti3C2-based composites and recent synthesis approaches, including structure development, of functional group formation, and various etching agents. We further explore using Ti3C2 in different structures coupled with g-C3N4 as a binary and ternary composite with the involvement of other semiconductors and sensitizers. The performance of various composites for water splitting to produce hydrogen and reforming systems, including CO2 conversion with H2O, CO2 methanation, dry reforming of CH4 (DRM), and bireforming of CH4 (BRM), is discussed in detail. The hydrophilic surface functional groups and efficient electron transport pathways of Ti3C2 MXenes make them excellent candidates for catalysts with high yield rates and selectivity. Finally, this review provides valuable insights into the potential applications of Ti3C2-based composites, and future research directions in this field are proposed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)12623-12664
Number of pages42
JournalEnergy and Fuels
Volume37
Issue number17
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Sept 7 2023

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Chemical Engineering
  • Fuel Technology
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology

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