Towards the Pharmacological Validation and Phytochemical Profiling of the Decoction and Maceration of Bruguiera gymnorhiza (L.) Lam.—A Traditionally Used Medicinal Halophyte

Nabeelah Bibi Sadeer, Kouadio Ibrahime Sinan, Zoltán Cziáky, József Jekő, Gokhan Zengin, Rajesh Jeewon, Hassan H. Abdallah, Yusra Aldhaheri, Ali H. Eid, Mohamad Fawzi Mahomoodally

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6 Citations (Scopus)


Decoctions (leaves and roots) of Bruguiera gymnorhiza (L.) Lam. are traditionally used against diabetes in many countries, including Mauritius. This study endeavoured to evaluate the inhibitory potential of leaves, roots, twigs and fruits extracts (decoction and maceration) of B. gym-norhiza against key enzymes relevant to diabetes. Considering complications related to diabetes, other clinical enzymes, namely, acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), tyrosi-nase, elastase and pancreatic lipase, were used. Identification of compounds was carried out using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS). Antioxidant capacities were assessed using DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, CUPRAC, phosphomolybdenum, metal chelating. The relationship between mode of extraction, plant parts and biological activities was determined using multivariate analysis. Macerated fruits, rich in phy-tochemicals (phenolic, flavanol, tannin, and triterpenoid), exhibited substantially high antioxidant capacities related to radical scavenging (DPPH: 547.75 ± 10.99 and ABTS: 439.59 ± 19.13 mg TE/g, respectively) and reducing potential (CUPRAC: 956.04 ± 11.90 and FRAP: 577.26 ± 4.55 mg TE/g, respectively). Additionally, the same extract significantly depressed AChE and BChE (3.75 ± 0.03 and 2.19 ± 0.13 mg GALAE/g, respectively), tyrosinase (147.01 ± 0.78 mg KAE/g), elastase (3.14 ± 0.08 mg OE/g) and amylase (1.22 ± 0.01 mmol ACAE/g) enzymatic activities. Phytochemical results confirmed the presence of 119 compounds in all maceration and 163 compounds in all decoction samples. The screening also revealed important compounds in the extracts, namely, quinic acid, brugierol, bruguierol A, epigallocatechin, chlorogenic acid, to name a few. Multivariate analysis reported that the plant parts of B. gymnorhiza greatly influenced the observed biological activities in contrast to the types of extraction methods employed. Docking calculations have supported the findings of the experimental part through the high binding affinity and strong interactions of some compounds against tyrosinase, AChE, BChE and elastase enzymes. The decocted root and leaf of B. gymnorhiza showed low to moderate antidiabetic activity, thereby partially supporting its traditional uses in the management of diabetes. However, the fruit, the most active organ, can be used as a diet supplement to reduce the risk of diabetes complications after evaluating its cytotoxic ef-fects.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2000
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Mar 1 2022


  • Bruguiera gymnorhiza
  • antioxidant
  • diabetes
  • docking
  • enzymes
  • multivariate analysis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Chemistry (miscellaneous)
  • Molecular Medicine
  • Pharmaceutical Science
  • Drug Discovery
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry


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