Towards understanding the immune system

A. H. Hashish, E. Ahmed

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


It is proposed that using both self-non-self and danger theories give a better understanding of how the immune system works. It is proposed that comparing the immune system to the police force is useful in this case since the police respond both to danger or damage signals and foreign or suspicious behavior even if no danger signals existed. We also propose that due to low zone tolerance, immunotherapy needs to be combined with another treatment method for cancer, e.g., chemotherapy or/and radiotherapy, to get sufficient eradication of tumors. Finally, we propose that fractional order differential equations are more suitable than the familiar integer order differential equations. A fractional order example of two immune effectors attacking an antigen is given.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)61-64
Number of pages4
JournalTheory in Biosciences
Issue number2-3
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2007

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Statistics and Probability
  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
  • Applied Mathematics


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