Transmetatarsal amputations in patients with diabetes mellitus: A contemporary analysis from an academic tertiary referral centre in a developing community

Qusai Aljarrah, Mohammed Z. Allouh, Anas Husein, Hussam Al-Jarrah, Amer Hallak, Sohail Bakkar, Hamzeh Domaidat, Rahmeh Malkawi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Transmetatarsal amputation (TMA) involves the surgical removal of the distal portion of metatarsals in the foot. It aims to maintain weight-bearing and independent ambulation while eliminating the risk of spreading soft tissue infection or gangrene. This study aimed to explore the risk factors and surgical outcomes of TMA in patients with diabetes at an academic tertiary referral center in Jordan. Medical records of all patients with diabetes mellitus who underwent TMA at King Abdullah University Hospital, Jordan, between January 2017 and January 2019 were retrieved. Patient characteristics along with clinical and laboratory findings were analyzed retrospectively. Pearson's chi-square test of association, Student's t-test, and multivariate regression analysis were used to identify and assess the relationships between patient findings and TMA outcome. The study cohort comprised 81 patients with diabetes who underwent TMA. Of these, 41 (50.6%) patients achieved complete healing. Most of the patients were insulin-dependent (85.2%). Approximately half of the patients (45.7%) had severe ankle-brachial index (ABI). Thirty patients (37.1%) had previous revascularization attempts. The presence of peripheral arterial disease (P<0.05) exclusively predicted poor outcomes among the associated comorbidities. Indications for TMA included infection, ischemia, or both. The presence of severe ABI (≤0.4, P<0.01) and a previous revascularization attempt (P<0.05) were associated with unfavorable outcomes of TMA. Multivariate analysis that included all demographic, clinical, and laboratory variables in the model revealed that insulin-dependent diabetes, low albumin level (< 33 g/L), high C-reactive protein level (> 150 mg/L), and low score of Laboratory Risk Indicator for Necrotizing Fasciitis (LRINEC, <6) were the main factors associated with poor TMA outcomes. TMA is an effective technique for the management of diabetic foot infection or ischemic necrosis. However, attention should be paid to certain important factors such as insulin dependence, serum albumin level, and LRINEC score, which may influence the patient's outcome.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere0277117
JournalPLoS ONE
Volume17
Issue number11 November
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2022

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General

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