Traumatic brain injury: Oxidative stress and novel anti-oxidants such as mitoquinone and edaravone

Helene Ismail, Zaynab Shakkour, Maha Tabet, Samar Abdelhady, Abir Kobaisi, Reem Abedi, Leila Nasrallah, Gianfranco Pintus, Yusra Al-Dhaheri, Stefania Mondello, Riyad El-Khoury, Ali H. Eid, Firas Kobeissy, Johnny Salameh

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

73 Citations (Scopus)


Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major health concern worldwide and is classified based on severity into mild, moderate, and severe. The mechanical injury in TBI leads to a metabolic and ionic imbalance, which eventually leads to excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and a state of oxidative stress. To date, no drug has been approved by the food and drug administration (FDA) for the treatment of TBI. Nevertheless, it is thought that targeting the pathology mechanisms would alleviate the consequences of TBI. For that purpose, antioxidants have been considered as treatment options in TBI and were shown to have a neuroprotective effect. In this review, we will discuss oxidative stress in TBI, the history of antioxidant utilization in the treatment of TBI, and we will focus on two novel antioxidants, mitoquinone (MitoQ) and edaravone. MitoQ can cross the blood brain barrier and cellular membranes to accumulate in the mitochondria and is thought to activate the Nrf2/ARE pathway leading to an increase in the expression of antioxidant enzymes. Edaravone is a free radical scavenger that leads to the mitigation of damage resulting from oxidative stress with a possible association to the activation of the Nrf2/ARE pathway as well.

Original languageEnglish
Article number943
Pages (from-to)1-18
Number of pages18
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - Oct 1 2020


  • Anti-oxidants
  • Edaravone
  • Mitoquinone
  • Oxidative stress
  • Traumatic brain injury

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Molecular Biology
  • Physiology
  • Biochemistry
  • Clinical Biochemistry
  • Cell Biology


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