Trends and Technologies in Rehabilitation of Foot Drop: A Systematic Review

Fady Alnajjar, Riadh Zaier, Sumayya Khalid, Munkhjargal Gochoo

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

23 Citations (Scopus)


Introduction: Foot Drop (FD) is a condition, which is very commonly found in post-stoke patients; however it can also be seen in patients with multiple sclerosis, and cerebral palsy. It is a sign of neuromuscular damage caused by the weakness of the muscles. There are various approaches of FD’s rehabilitation, such as physiotherapy, surgery, and the use of technological devices. Recently, researchers have worked on developing various technologies to enhance assisting and rehabilitation of FD. Areas Covered: This review analyzes different types of technologies available for FD. This include devices that are available commercially or still under research. 101 studies published between 2015 and 2020 were identified for the review, many were excluded due to various reasons, e.g., were not robot-based devices, did not include FD as one of the targeted diseases, or was insufficient information. 24 studies that met our inclusion criteria were assessed. These studies were further classified into two different categories: robot-based ankle-foot orthosis (RAFO) and Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) devices. Expert Opinion: Studies included showed that both RAFO and FES showed considerable improvement in the gait cycle of the patients. Future trends are inclining towards integrating FES with other neuro-concepts such as muscle-synergies for further developments.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)31-46
Number of pages16
JournalExpert Review of Medical Devices
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • Foot Drop rehabilitation
  • functional Electrical Stimulation
  • muscle Synergy
  • robotic Rehabilitation device
  • robotic-based Ankle-Foot Orthosis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Biomedical Engineering


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