Tunable band gap of Bi3+-doped anatase TiO2 for enhanced photocatalytic removal of acetaminophen under UV-visible light irradiation

Ahmed Alzamly, Fathalla Hamed, Tholkappiyan Ramachandran, Maram Bakiro, Salwa Hussein Ahmed, Shefaa Mansour, Sahar Salem, Khaldiha Abdul al, Nawf Saif Al Kaabi, Mohammed Meetani, Abbas Khaleel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

26 Citations (Scopus)


A series of Bi3+-doped TiO2 photocatalysts has been prepared via the propylene oxide (PO) assisted sol-gel method. The effect of Bi3+ doping on structural surface morphology and optical properties of the as-prepared photocatalysts was characterized using UV-Visible (UV-Vis) diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller for determination of the specific surface area and porosity, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Increasing the Bi3+ doping percentage up to 10 mole percent, resulted in all as-prepared photocatalysts exhibiting pure anatase phase upon calcination at 400 °C for 3 hours. A red shift in optical band gap measurements was observed with increasing Bi3+ ion percent doping, which led to extension of the photocatalysts’ activity to the visible region. The enhanced photocatalytic activity for removal of the pharmaceutical compound acetaminophen under UV-Vis light irradiation was demonstrated by comparing bismuth doped as-prepared photocatalysts with pure TiO2 photocatalysts prepared under the same conditions. Based on experimental conditions, the highest activity was achieved using 10 mole percent Bi3+-doped photocatalyst, where over a period of 4 hours more than 98% acetaminophen removal was achieved.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)31-46
Number of pages16
JournalJournal of Water Reuse and Desalination
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2019


  • Acetaminophen
  • Band gap
  • Bi-doped TiO
  • Photocatalytic
  • Uv-vis irradiation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Water Science and Technology
  • Filtration and Separation


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