Unusual pediatric lung infections: imaging findings

Domen Plut, Abbey J. Winant, Nasreen Mahomed, Kushaljit Singh Sodhi, Joanna Kasznia-Brown, Terri Williams-Weekes, Pedro Daltro, Karuna M. Das, Edward Y. Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Pediatric lung infections continue to be a leading cause of pediatric morbidity and mortality. Although both pediatric and general radiologists are familiar with typical lung infections and their imaging findings in children, relatively rare lung infections continue to present a diagnostic challenge. In addition, the advances in radiological imaging and emergence of several new lung infections in recent years facilitated the need for up-to-date knowledge on this topic. In this review article, we discuss the imaging findings of pediatric lung infections caused by unusual/uncommon and new pathogens. We review the epidemiological, clinical, and radiological imaging findings of viral (coronavirus disease 2019, Middle East respiratory syndrome, bird flu), bacterial (Streptococcus anginosus, Francisella tularensis, Chlamydia psittaci), and parasitic lung infections (echinococcosis, paragonimiasis, amoebiasis). Additional disorders whose clinical course and imaging findings may mimic lung infections in children (hypersensitivity pneumonitis, pulmonary hemorrhage, eosinophilic pneumonia) are also presented, to aid in differential diagnosis. As the clinical presentation of children with new and unusual lung infections is often non-specific, imaging evaluation plays an important role in initial detection, follow-up for disease progression, and assessment of potential complications. Graphical Abstract: (Figure presented.)

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)516-529
Number of pages14
JournalPediatric Radiology
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2024


  • Chest
  • Child
  • Computed tomography
  • Infection
  • Pneumonia
  • Radiography
  • Ultrasound

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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