Unveiling the impact of aging on BBB and Alzheimer's disease: Factors and therapeutic implications

Vinod Kumar Nelson, Niraj Kumar Jha, Mohana Vamsi Nuli, Saurabh Gupta, Sandeep Kanna, Reem M. Gahtani, Umme Hani, Arun Kumar Singh, Mosleh Mohammad Abomughaid, Ali M. Abomughayedh, Abdulmajeed G. Almutary, Danish Iqbal, Ayoub Al Othaim, S. Sabarunisha Begum, Fuzail Ahmad, Prabhu Chandra Mishra, Saurabh Kumar Jha, Shreesh Ojha

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a highly prevalent neurodegenerative condition that has devastating effects on individuals, often resulting in dementia. AD is primarily defined by the presence of extracellular plaques containing insoluble β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) composed of hyperphosphorylated tau protein (P-tau). In addition, individuals afflicted by these age-related illnesses experience a diminished state of health, which places significant financial strain on their loved ones. Several risk factors play a significant role in the development of AD. These factors include genetics, diet, smoking, certain diseases (such as cerebrovascular diseases, obesity, hypertension, and dyslipidemia), age, and alcohol consumption. Age-related factors are key contributors to the development of vascular-based neurodegenerative diseases such as AD. In general, the process of aging can lead to changes in the immune system's responses and can also initiate inflammation in the brain. The chronic inflammation and the inflammatory mediators found in the brain play a crucial role in the dysfunction of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Furthermore, maintaining BBB integrity is of utmost importance in preventing a wide range of neurological disorders. Therefore, in this review, we discussed the role of age and its related factors in the breakdown of the blood-brain barrier and the development of AD. We also discussed the importance of different compounds, such as those with anti-aging properties, and other compounds that can help maintain the integrity of the blood-brain barrier in the prevention of AD. This review builds a strong correlation between age-related factors, degradation of the BBB, and its impact on AD.

Original languageEnglish
Article number102224
JournalAgeing Research Reviews
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2024


  • Aging
  • Alzheimer's disease
  • Anti-aging compounds
  • BBB components
  • BBB dysfunction
  • Inflammation
  • Neurotherapeutics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biotechnology
  • Biochemistry
  • Ageing
  • Molecular Biology
  • Neurology


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