Unveiling the Seismic Performance of Concentrically Braced Steel Frames: A Comprehensive Review

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Steel braced frames resist earthquake ground motion by undergoing several cycles of inelastic deformation. These deformations include elongation under tension and buckling in compression. To facilitate an understanding of the inelastic response of concentrically braced steel members under cyclic loading, several experimental, numerical, and analytical studies have been carried out by various researchers around the world. To overcome buckling, one of the primary failure mechanisms in Concentrically Braced Frames (CBFs), different bracing systems with recently developed mechanisms were implemented to tackle this phenomenon. The main features of these systems are to dissipate the earthquake-induced energy effectively, with minimum damage to buildings and infrastructure. Such systems still have some drawbacks, such as weight, price and specific performance issues. This work comprehensively studies CBFs, including concept, design, seismic behavior and performance for conventional, modern, and self-centering bracing systems. It summarizes 27 test programs for conventional CBFs, highlighting the different alternatives and approaches used by various researchers. Several additional studies incorporating self-centering bracing systems are also emphasized. The work finally highlights the advancements and challenges in achieving more sustainable solutions for the built environment.

Original languageEnglish
Article number427
JournalSustainability (Switzerland)
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2024


  • braced frames
  • energy dissipation
  • inelastic deformations
  • self-centering systems
  • steel members

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Computer Science (miscellaneous)
  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Environmental Science (miscellaneous)
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Hardware and Architecture
  • Computer Networks and Communications
  • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law


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