Consumer awareness of the relationship between health and nutrition has caused a substantial increase in the demand for nutraceuticals and functional foods containing bioactive compounds (BACs) with potential health benefits. However, the direct incorporation of many BACs into commercial food and beverage products is challenging because of their poor matrix compatibility, chemical instability, low bioavailability, or adverse impact on food quality. Advanced encapsulation technologies are therefore being employed to overcome these problems. In this article, we focus on the utilization of plant and animal derived proteins to fabricate micro and nano-particles that can be used for the oral delivery of BACs such as omega-3 oils, vitamins and nutraceuticals. This review comprehensively discusses different methods being implemented for fabrications of protein-based delivery vehicles, types of proteins used, and their compatibility for the purpose. Finally, some of the challenges and limitations of different protein matrices for encapsulation of BACs are deliberated upon. Various approaches have been developed for the fabrication of protein-based microparticles and nanoparticles, including injection-gelation, controlled denaturation, and antisolvent precipitation methods. These methods can be used to construct particle-based delivery systems with different compositions, sizes, surface hydrophobicity, and electrical characteristics, thereby enabling them to be used in a wide range of applications.
- Bioactive compounds
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Food Science
- Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering