Valorization of fish byproducts: Sources to end-product applications of bioactive protein hydrolysate

Nilesh Prakash Nirmal, Chalat Santivarangkna, Mithun Singh Rajput, Soottawat Benjakul, Sajid Maqsood

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

44 Citations (Scopus)


Fish processing industries result in an ample number of protein-rich byproducts, which have been used to produce protein hydrolysate (PH) for human consumption. Chemical, microbial, and enzymatic hydrolysis processes have been implemented for the production of fish PH (FPH) from diverse types of fish processing byproducts. FPH has been reported to possess bioactive active peptides known to exhibit various biological activities such as antioxidant, antimicrobial, angiotensin-I converting enzyme inhibition, calcium-binding ability, dipeptidyl peptidase-IV inhibition, immunomodulation, and antiproliferative activity, which are discussed comprehensively in this review. Appropriate conditions for the hydrolysis process (e.g., type and concentration of enzymes, time, and temperature) play an important role in achieving the desired level of hydrolysis, thus affecting the functional and bioactive properties and stability of FPH. This review provides an in-depth and comprehensive discussion on the sources, process parameters, purification as well as functional and bioactive properties of FPHs. The most recent research findings on the impact of production parameters, bitterness of peptide, storage, and food processing conditions on functional properties and stability of FPH were also reported. More importantly, the recent studies on biological activities of FPH and in vivo health benefits were discussed with the possible mechanism of action. Furthermore, FPH-polyphenol conjugate, encapsulation, and digestive stability of FPH were discussed in terms of their potential to be utilized as a nutraceutical ingredient. Last but not the least, various industrial applications of FPH and the fate of FPH in terms of limitations, hurdles, future research directions, and challenges have been addressed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1803-1842
Number of pages40
JournalComprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2022


  • biological activities
  • digestive stability
  • fish protein hydrolysates
  • health benefits
  • industrial applications
  • production

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science


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