Verapamil hydrochloride loaded solid lipid nanoparticles: Preparation, optimization, characterisation, and assessment of cardioprotective effect in experimental model of myocardial infarcted rats

Yogeeta O. Agrawal, Muzammil Husain, Kiran D. Patil, Vishal Sodgir, Tulshidas S. Patil, Vinit V. Agnihotri, Hitendra S. Mahajan, Charu Sharma, Shreesh Ojha, Sameer N. Goyal

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Verapamil, a calcium channel blocker has poor bioavailability (20–30%) owing to extensive hepatic first-pass metabolism. Hence, the major objective of this research was to improve the oral bioavailability of Verapamil by Solid Lipid Nanoparticles (V-SLNs) using high shear homogenization and ultrasonication technology. A 32 factorial design was employed to statistically optimize the formulation to get minimum particle size with maximum entrapment efficiency. The average particle size was 218 nm and the entrapment efficiency was 80.32%. The V-SLN formulation exhibited biphasic behavior with a rapid release at first, then a steady release (75–80%) up to 24 h following the Korsmeyer Peppas release model. In the Isoproterenol induced myocardial necrosis model, oral administration of V-SLNs positively modulated almost all the studied hemodynamic parameters such as left ventricular end-diastolic pressure, cardiac injury markers, and tissue architecture. The cardioprotective effect was also confirmed with histopathological studies. When compared with free drugs, in-vivo pharmacokinetic studies demonstrated a rise in t1/2, AUC0-∞, and Cmax, indicating that bioavailability has improved. These encouraging results demonstrate the promising potential of developed V-SLNs for oral delivery and thereby improve the therapeutic outcome.

Original languageEnglish
Article number113429
JournalBiomedicine and Pharmacotherapy
Volume154
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2022

Keywords

  • Factorial design
  • Isoproterenol
  • Myocardial necrosis
  • Pharmacokinetic
  • Solid lipid nanoparticles
  • Verapamil

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology

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