Which parameters to use for sleep quality monitoring in team sport athletes? A systematic review and meta-analysis

João Gustavo Claudino, Tim J. Gabbet, Helton De Sá Souza, Mário Simim, Peter Fowler, Diego De Alcantara Borba, Marco Melo, Altamiro Bottino, Irineu Loturco, Vânia D'Almeida, Alberto Carlos Amadio, Julio Cerca Serrão, George P. Nassis

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

52 Citations (Scopus)


Background Sleep quality is an essential component of athlete's recovery. However, a better understanding of the parameters to adequately quantify sleep quality in team sport athletes is clearly warranted. Objective To identify which parameters to use for sleep quality monitoring in team sport athletes. Methods Systematic searches for articles reporting the qualitative markers related to sleep in team sport athletes were conducted in PubMed, Scopus, SPORTDiscus and Web of Science online databases. The systematic review followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. For the meta-analysis, effect sizes with 95% CI were calculated and heterogeneity was assessed using a random-effects model. The coefficient of variation (CV) with 95% CI was also calculated to assess the level of instability of each parameter. Results In general, 30 measuring instruments were used for monitoring sleep quality. A meta-analysis was undertaken on 15 of these parameters. Four objective parameters inferred by actigraphy had significant results (sleep efficiency with small CV and sleep latency, wake episodes and total wake episode duration with large CV). Six subjective parameters obtained from questionnaires and scales also had meaningful results (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (sleep efficiency), Likert scale (Hooper), Likert scale (no reference), Liverpool Jet-Lag Questionnaire, Liverpool Jet-Lag Questionnaire (sleep rating) and RESTQ (sleep quality)). Conclusions These data suggest that sleep efficiency using actigraphy, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Likert scale, Liverpool Jet-Lag Questionnaire and RESTQ are indicated to monitor sleep quality in team sport athletes. PROSPERO registration number CRD42018083941.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere000475
JournalBMJ Open Sport and Exercise Medicine
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 1 2019
Externally publishedYes


  • actigraphy
  • performance
  • questionnaires and scales
  • recovery

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation


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